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Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Sizing Basics by Prof. M.C. Burji

Monday, April 7, 2014

Far-infrared Rays Reflecting Fabrics for Improving the Performance of Human body

Far-infrared Rays Reflecting Fabrics for Improving the Performance of Human body

Abhijit Vathare
Department Of Textiles
D. K. T. E. Society's Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji

1. Introduction-

        As we know that no one can do without clothes, one of the basic essentials. The clothes we wear not only act as a covering and protection but also help as to make a personal statement – in short they project the image of ourselves that we want others to see. Now, they can also do more than just provide an outer covering clothes can bring about welcome emotional and mental changes. "FIR", although we cannot see them are not only beneficial, but are also necessary for all living things. America, Japan and some European countries realized this long ago. As a result, they are 20 years ahead in the use of far-infrared emitting products. We are just now starting to catch-up as more and more far-infrared products are being approved. Some examples are Far-Infrared Saunas, Far-Infrared Treatment Lamps, Far-Infrared wraps, Far-Infrared clothing, Far-Infrared ovens, and a variety of Far-Infrared Treatments are ongoing in clinical studies. There have been promising results in the treatment of arthritis, soft-tissue healing, cancer, and sterilization. energear™, a fabric made with a specially formulated mineral matrix by Schoeller, reflects a body's Far Infrared Rays (FIRs) back to the wearer. With energear™, Schoeller is using ancient knowledge about the therapeutic properties of certain minerals and their ability to reflect back FIRs. Fabric features such as breathability, weather protection or stretch remain the same. [1,9,13]

1.1.   History: How Far Infrared therapy came into being:  
      Our bodies radiate far infrared energy through the skin at 3 to 50 microns, with most output at 9.4 microns. Our palms emit FIR energy also, between 8 and 14 microns. 'Palm Healing', an ancient tradition in China, has used the healing properties of far infrared rays for 30 years. Current research conducted in Taiwan has measured significant far infrared energy emitted from the hands of Chi Gong masters. Yogis in India also employ palm healing and recommend it especially for relieving eye strain. Thermal therapy has in fact been in existence for thousands of years, dating back to ancient civilizations such as the Finns, the Romans, the ancient Chinese and the American Indian. [11,14]
       Since ancient times, people have believed that exposure to sunshine can maintain and even enhance health. Sun therapy is a form of natural FIR thermal therapy. Far Infrared Ray are the invisible rays of natural sunlight that have the longest wavelength. However, sunbathing should only be enjoyed in moderation since sunlight contains ultra-violet ray which are potentially damaging. There is also no temperature control and sunshine is only available seasonally.[15]
      Traditional forms of heat therapy can be hazardous, uncomfortable, unhygienic, inefficient and ineffective. Saunas create exposure to extremely high temperatures causing heat stress which can have detrimental effects on health, especially for people with a heart condition or high blood pressure. Thermal compression's and wraps are uncomfortable, heat is easily lost, temperature does not remain constant and maintaining a thermal compression or wrap is problematic and inconvenient.
     In the last forty years, scientific evidence has found that deep heat can enhance the beneficial effects of healing therapy. Scientists have looked at ways of how to develop more effective forms of thermal treatment that target specific areas and enable deep heat penetration. Research and development in the sixties, notably most extensively in Japan, introduced the Far Infrared Ray (FIR) thermal technology. This revolutionized thermal technology to an effective, safe, natural, hygienic, and efficient approach to thermal treatment. Today there are multiple health and medical professionals internationally who rehabilitate and treat a multitude of physical problems by using heat therapy.[7,10]

2.   What is Far infrared light
     Infrared rays :- Electromagnet radiation having wavelength above microwave but below visible light: between 700 nanometers (0.7 micrometer) and 100,000 nanometers (1 millimeter). Infrared rays are radiated and absorbed by all bodies at above the absolute-zero temperature.

2.1.   Far Infrared Rays Are Waves of Energy
       Far Infrared Rays are waves of energy that are healing and rejuvenating. These invisible rays possess great penetrative power and are able to reach into the cells, inner tissues, glands, nerves and organs beneath the skin. Far Infrared Rays gently elevate the body’s temperature and activate major bodily functions.[15]
Far Infrared Rays are invisible light that was discovered by a scientist named Sir William Herschel in 1800 while he was carrying out research; he found that Far Infrared Rays are a spectrum of sunlight.
·                 This research led to the discovery that there were not only the known visible rays - red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet plus the invisible rays, Gamma and Ultraviolet but also a previously unknown invisible ray which was later named Infrared. Far Infrared Rays are present in the spectrum between visible light and microwaves.
·         The greatest amount of the sun's energy output is in the infrared segment of the spectrum. This band of light is not visible but can be felt as heat. Approximately 80% of sunlight is made up of Far Infrared Rays.
·                 Far Infrared Energy is absorbed very easily by the human body and helps in all aspects of bodily growth and development. Far Infrared Energy is very healing and rejuvenating. It energizes the cells, inner tissues, glands, nerves and organs beneath the skin.
·          Albert Szent-Gyorgi, Nobel Prize Winner and the discoverer of vitamin C, believed that all energy from the sun has profound effects on us. His research showed that light can literally alter the body’s basic biological functions.
          Among the total spectrum of solar rays coming from the sun, the Far Infrared Rays are the safest and the most beneficial. For example, the visible light spectrum, with very short wavelengths, is reflected away from the body. When near infrared (NIR) wave heat organic substances the surface gets hotter than the interior, and conduction from the surface heats the interior. It falls within the same family of Infrared Rays in the light spectrum, but due to its longer wavelengths human eyes, just like Ultraviolet Rays, cannot see FIR. The energy is essential & beneficial for all human beings. FIR has the ability to penetrate, refract, radiate & reflect. The human body can absorb FIR because of its deep penetrating ability. When FIR penetrates through the skin to the subcutaneous tissues, it transforms from light energy into heat energy. The thermal effect within the deep layers of tissues cause blood vessels in capillaries to dilate, promoting better blood circulation, and the heat produced helps to get rid of body toxins and metabolic wastes through sweating

  

The kinds of far infrared rays

Near Infrared ray
0.75~1.5 micron
Middle Infrared ray
1.5~5.6  micron
Far Infrared ray
5.6~1000 micron

       Everything in the universe vibrates. All matters, atoms, molecules and all kinds of substances vibrate when energy is applied. We cannot see energy but we can see the effects of energy by observing different kinds of vibrations. Through these vibrations, energy is transferred from one substance to another.

  

2.2 How Far Infrared Rays (FIR) Work
        FIR causes resonance with water molecules. It ionizes and activates water molecules in our cells and blood thus improving our blood circulation and health condition. The human body contains more than 70% water (H2O) by weight. The intensity of FIR produced by the human body constantly fluctuates.  When its intensity is high, we feel healthy and are able to overcome ailments.  When the FIR begins to decline, we are subject to attacks of illness and tend to age more quickly. Far Infrared Treatment stimulates cellular metabolism which increases the body’s regenerative ability and helps restore the proper function of the nervous system. When any tissue in the body is exposed to FIR the body’s healing processes are activated. Studies suggest Far Infrared Energy helps to maintain general health and prevent disease. Far Infrared Rays are capable of penetrating deep into the human body, gently expanding capillaries and stimulating blood circulation.  So Far Infrared Rays stimulate the production of cell tissue and rapidly promotes the regeneration of skin and blood tissue.[16, 17]
  • Warming and eliminating fats, chemicals and toxins from our blood and thus smoothening the flow of blood.  
  • Activates water molecules in our body
  • Improve oxygen level in our body
  • Elimination of other waste from the body        
  • Reducing the acidic level in our body
  • Improve nervous system
Blood circulation
      Infrared cameras are being used to show changes in blood flow circulation. The above thermal image shows an increase in temperature and blood flow in the muscles of the subjects back after message therapy.


           We can be exposed to Far Infrared heat for hours and it will never cause our skin to burn. Far Infrared heat is completely healthy and safe for all living things. Scientists in Japan report that in the FIR treatment of clogged capillary vessels, heat expands the capillaries and then initiates the start of a process to dissolve hidden toxins. [17] Far Infrared thereby promotes elimination of fats, chemicals and toxins from the blood: Poisons, carcinogenic heavy metals - toxic substances from food processing - lactic acid, free fatty acids, and subcutaneous fat associated with aging and fatigue - excess sodium associated with hypertension - and uric acid which causes pain. The increased blood flow helps aching and injured muscles recover faster because of the stronger blood flow and the quicker metabolic and toxic waste productions purged from the body through the skin during perspiration. The skin is known in Chinese medicine as the third kidney because it is believed to be responsible for eliminating up to 30% of body waste.
                   



          Hundreds of years ago, people discovered and turned to heat therapy as a source of natural healing for many illnesses and discomforts. FIR heat is simply and naturally rising to the top of health regime requirements. Activated by heat, the FIR material emits FIR energy that is absorbed by human cells, causing a physical phenomenon called "RESONANCE". Thus, the cellular activities are instantly invigorated, resulting in better blood circulation and an overall improved metabolism. FIR heat therapy can aid in weight loss by speeding metabolic processes of vital organs and endocrine glands resulting in a substantial caloric loss in a heat session. It also increases heart rate and blood circulation, both crucial to maintaining one's health.
2.2.1     Therapeutic Effect of Far Infrared-
The therapeutic effects of far infrared in healthcare practices are mainly due to it’s:
                                             1. Non-warming biological effect (resonance effect)
                                             2. Warming effect
Non-warming biological effect (resonance effect)                                                                                 Dr. Tsu-Tsair Oliver Chi adds to the understanding of the healing power of Far Infrared with his discussion of Resonant Absorption - "These rays are selectively absorbed by the tissues. The internal production of infrared energy that normally occurs within our tissues is associated with a variety of healing responses and may require a boost to a maximal level to insure the fullest healing response possible in a tissue under repair. After boosting a tissue's level to maximum, the remaining rays pass onward harmlessly. This phenomenon is called Resonant Absorption."
     About 70% of human body is made up of water. Water content of blood is even higher, reaching as high as 80%. As its frequency is very similar to molecules within body cells and vibration of water molecules, therefore when far infrared reaches human body, it causes resonance effect.  Under the resonance effect, the far infrared activates water molecules, causes the big cluster of water molecules (15 - 17) to smaller cluster of water molecules (5 - 7). The smaller the water molecule cluster, the higher the penetrability and dissolving power, the stronger the metabolism strength. It will be much easier to deliver oxygen and nutrients into cell, and transportation of toxin and waste out of cells. Water is the basic substance for organism (cell consists of 90% water), when it is activated, the cell can restore vigor, resulting in overall improvement of most physiological function.


Warming effect
      The far infrared warming effect promotes local vasodilatation, increases blood flow, accelerates whole body's blood circulation, and significantly improves the microcirculation. The modern physiology study tells us, the oxygen and nutrient deficit in organism tissue caused by insufficient blood supply is basically due to the microcirculation problems. One of the signs is insufficient opening of the microcirculation network. Healthy person has microcirculation network opening rate of approximately 40-50%. For people with microcirculation blockage it is much lower than this, mostly around 5-10% only. (The Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Hematology Research Institute demonstrated that a 20-minute far infrared therapy could increase microcirculation blood flow volume to 114%). Microcirculation blockage has been confirmed to be highly correlated to the sub-healthy conditions and many chronic diseases. Therefore the far infrared ray can effectively improve the sub-healthy conditions, and also significantly improves many chronic illness symptoms with remarkable results. Its main principle lies in its improvement of microcirculation. Far infrared is one type of heat radiations. Besides being able to promote the blood circulation, causing larger quantity and increased speed of blood flowing, at the same time it also increases the body temperature, maintaining warmth. Simultaneously warming effect will bring to local muscle relaxation; remove the accumulated fluid, with wonderful effect on eliminating inflammation and swelling. [14]

2.2.1 Activation of cell
      In the human body, vibration wave length of the cell membrane and the protein differs depending on the types of substances, with their own characteristic wave lengths. However, all of them are within the range of 3 to 30 microns, which falls within the far infrared band. Therefore when the human body receives the far infrared ray, macro-molecule of the organism like nucleic acid and protein etc. can be activated. Having higher vibration state allows these biological molecules efficiently regulate on the metabolism and immunity functions of organisms. When 60 trillion cells of our whole body are activated, all organs and tissues would restore their functions, benefiting organism’s normal physiological functioning and balancing, enhancing the self-recovery capability and the physique improvement, achieving our goal in preventing and curing of diseases.

Promote and improve body fluid circulation
         The far infrared ray is one kind of heat radiations. Together with its water activation due to resonance effect, it therefore effectively promotes the body fluid circulation. When far infrared fall on the skin, most of the energy will be absorbed by the skin, causing body surface temperature to rise. Skin internal heat receptor after receiving the stimulation, through the thalamus reflection, it causes relaxation of blood vessel smooth muscle, the vasodilatation and speeds up blood circulation. The blood circulation thus improved, including the microcirculation system. Far infrared ray acts on water. Therefore, other than blood circulation, the far infrared ray also at the same time promotes the lymph and the tissue fluid circulation, thus increasing tissue and cell's oxygen content, enhancing the body detoxification function.

Increase metabolism
        The far infrared ray can improve the blood viscosity effectively, thus reducing the blood flow resistance effectively, making it easier to enter the capillaries. This secures the exchange of metabolic materials in tissues, improves blood oxygen supply to local pathological area. Long-term metabolic disorders will lead to chronic diseases e.g. diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, arthritis etc. Through far infrared ray warming and resonance effect, it increases tissue's vigor, regulates body fluid organic function, strengthens metabolism, stabilizes the exchange of material. The far infrared ray promotes vitality, enhancing cell regeneration, thus strengthens our recovery capability.

Enhance immunologic function
      Immunological function is one physiology protection reaction of human body, including the cellular immunity and the humoral immunity. It plays extremely vital role to the human body defending and anti-infection function. Clinical observation showed that far infrared ray could enhance the organism’s macrophage function, strengthen human body's immunity. The heat energy of far infrared ray may penetrate deep into hypodermic layer, causes the subcutaneous tissue temperature rise, maintaining the body temperature at the optimal condition (healthiest body temperature for adult is 36.5 - 37°C). (body temperatures of 35°C is a low temperature condition at which cancer cell multiply the best).

Has anti-inflammatory, anti-swelling and analgesic effect
        The far infrared ray warming effect may increase the skin hypodermic temperature by 1-2° C. This simultaneously expands the capillaries, speeds up the blood flow, achieving relaxation and loosening of one’s physique's effectively. Loosening local soft tissues helps to reduce the excitability of nerve ending. In addition to that, improvement of blood circulation and subside of swelling, efficiently brings to its anti-inflammatory, anti-swelling and analgesic effect. Because of activation of one’s metabolism, increased cell blood and oxygen supply, it has very remarkable therapeutic effect on controlling the development of inflammation

2.2.3. Benefits of far infra red ray therapy  
  • Facilitates detoxification.
  • Activation of cells and tissues, improving the body’s metabolism
  • Boosts immune function by stimulating increased production of white blood cells (leukocytes) by the bone marrow and killer T-cells by the thymus
  • Alleviates fatigue and increases vitality.
  • Improve oxygen levels in the body
  • Eliminate fats, chemicals and toxins from the blood, improving circulation
  • Eliminate waste from the body reducing the acid levels and rejuvenating the nervous system
  • Prevents the growth of bacteria
  • Pain Relief
  • Reduces Inflammation
  • Improve strength and health
  • Enhances the repair of the body’s cells
  • Balances the acidity in the body
  • Normalizes cholesterol levels
  • Expands capillaries which stimulates increased blood flow, regeneration, circulation and oxygenation
  • Far Infrared stimulates enzyme activity and metabolism
  • Helps to eliminate of disease causing bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites
  • Promotes rebuilding of injured tissue
3      Energear fabric-
          EnergearTM is an entirely new textile technology from Schoeller. It ensures that the energy radiated by the body is reflected back to the wearer. Practical tests prove that this additional energy has a positive effect on performance and wellbeing. "Humans constantly radiate or emit energy. Energear ensures that the heat energy radiated by the body in the form of Far Infrared Rays is reflected back by the fabric. This reflection can increase circulation and oxygen levels in the blood," Schoeller Technologies says. "The additional energy can have various positive effects on the body, such as performance enhancement and the reduction of premature fatigue as well as improved regeneration. Furthermore, shorter warm-up phases suffice during physical activity and there is a general increase of concentration and wellbeing," the company adds.

3.1. The function
         A special titanium and mineral matrix developed specifically for energearTM causes energy radiated by the body to be reflected back by the fabric in the form of Far Infrared Rays. This development uses the ancient knowledge of the capacity of certain minerals to reflect back heat energy rays. Additionally, Far Infrared Rays have long been in use for medicinal therapeutic purposes. The result is the reflection of the body’s own infrared rays providing the body with additional energy. This allows the heat balance to be optimized and promotes various energetic processes in the body without having an effect on fabric proprieties such as breathability and elasticity.


                
                Far Infrared Rays are active waves of invisible light produced by the sun and its deep penetrating heat reaches up to 2 inches into the muscles and bones.

3.2. Increase of oxygen levels in blood
        EnergearTM is the latest fabric generation from Schoeller Textile, that like most Schoeller developments, takes nature as its role model. With energearTM, a special mineral matrix integrated into the fabric ensures that the energy radiated by the body in the form of Far Infrared Rays (FIRs) is reflected back by the textile. The reflection of the FIRs promotes blood circulation and in the increase of oxygen level in the blood. This additional energy has a number of positive effects on the body, for example, performance enhancement and prevention of premature fatigue, as well as improved regeneration. In addition, shorter warm-up phases are sufficient for physical activity and there is an overall increase in concentration and wellbeing. Of course, other fabrics features such as breathability, weather protection and elasticity are retained. 

3.3. Mineral printing in metal look
       The energear textile technology was developed in 2010 for Schoeller textiles and is now available for diverse markets. Energear can be integrated into textiles in different ways such as through.

1. Membranes
2. Coatings (Scholar Textile AG)
3. Now  via textile printing (Scholar Technologies AG).

Far Infra Red technology can be printed onto fabrics
        According to Schoeller, to harness the benefits of this technology for a textile print, a minimum of 30% of a shirt or other garment can be finished with the laundry-permanent energear print. Schoeller Technologies has also developed some design suggestions for the purpose and depending on the blend, the printing paste with energear results in a grey to silver-metallic look. Schoeller says the process is generating enormous interest in various areas and is officially launching at Outdoor. Bugatti (lifestyle jacket) energear is a recently launched novel textile technology from the Austrian textile innovator, that is said to ensure that the wearer's energy is reflected back to the body bringing health and fitness benefits.
                             .

               
            A print version (paste for textile printing) of energear will be shown at this week's Outdoor in Friedrichshafen which Schoeller says will make it incredibly simple to print shirts, shorts and underwear (even after production) with the energy-reflecting titanium-based mineral matrix. [1,2,6,7] Various stress tests have been performed to verify the function of energearTM. Two identical outfits were tested, one with the energearTM finish and one without. The test subjects wearing energearTM experienced proven positive effects and in some cases, the benefits of energear™ were greater among those who do not exercise regularly. In tests of people in an active, aerobic phase wearing energear™, a lower pulse rate and an increase of air intake could be observed. Improved performance capacity and lower acidity due to the increased air intake were recorded.

4. Test

4.1. energearTM – Effects within the framework of lactic acid tests
       Among many test subjects, results showed varying degrees of lactic acid levels during physical exercise. The levels of lactic acid in the blood were measured immediately after physical exercise. The levels of lactic acid in many of the test subjects with the energearTM out fit were lower than those of test subjects with the comparative clothing. Given the fact that an increase of lactic acid levels during physical exercise leadsto more rapid muscle exhaustion, the tests show that energearTM can enhance physical performance.
  
                                          
4.2. energearTM – Effects on heart rate
         Further positive effects of energearTM in stress tests can be determined in terms of  heart rate. It was found that with physical activity, the heart rate of the test subjects with the energearTM outfit could be positively influenced, and in some cases considerably. For example, in some cases the heart rate of the test subjects was reduced by up to 20 beats per minute. Although human heart rate is dependent on many factors, such as age and level of fitness, in general keeping a lower heart rate during exercise means an individual tends not to reach his/her personal limit as quickly and can also recover faster[3,4,5] In testing, Schoeller claims people wearing energear in an active, aerobic phase of exercise displayed an increase of air intake and a lower pulse rate. As a result, their performance was improved and their build-up of lactic acid lowered, leading to higher stamina.


        A special mineral matrix integrated into a fabric reflects far infra-red (FIR) radiation from the body back to the wearer resulting in a number of beneficial effects, such as more energy, increased performance capacity and a greater wellbeing, claims the textile's developer.

4.3 Bean test
      Schoeller also conducted a simple experiment with beans which it says plausibly demonstrates the positive effects of energear. "Nestling in fabric covers - one with and one without energear - the growth of these plants that react sensitively to environmental influences was tested. After just eight days, a distinct difference was observed. The beans (on left in energearTM) grew significantly faster and in greater numbers that those without energear," the company said.


 5. Application –
The possibilities of use in apparel:
When physical performance and stamina are called for, energear™ makes good sense. energear™ is perfect for
·         all sports,
·         summer and winter mountain activities,
·         trekking,
·         work wear and military,
·         as well urban wear, living areas: textiles for sleep

6. Conclusion –
  • Far Infrared Energy is absorbed very easily by the human body and helps in all aspects of bodily growth and development. Far Infrared Energy is very healing and rejuvenating. It energizes the cells, inner tissues, glands, nerves and organs beneath the skin.
  • Far Infrared Rays are capable of penetrating deep into the human body, gently expanding capillaries and stimulating blood circulation.  So Far Infrared Rays stimulate the production of cell tissue and rapidly promotes the regeneration of skin and blood tissue.
  • EnergearTM ensures that the energy radiated by the body is reflected back to the wearer. Practical tests prove that this additional energy has a positive effect on performance and wellbeing.
  • A special titanium and mineral matrix developed specifically for energearTM causes energy radiated by the body to be reflected back by the fabric in the form of Far Infrared Rays.

·         In tests of people in an active, aerobic phase wearing energear™, a lower pulse rate and an increase of air intake could be observed. Improved performance capacity and lower acidity due to the increased air intake were recorded.
  • Schoeller Textil AG develop and produce highly-functional fabrics and innovative textile technologies for sport, work, lifestyle, fashion and office furnishings. And pay close attention to ecological safety and good design.
  • The increased blood flow helps aching and injured muscles recover faster because of the stronger blood flow and the quicker metabolic and toxic waste productions purged from the body through the skin during perspiration. The skin is known in Chinese medicine as the third kidney because it is believed to be responsible for eliminating up to 30% of body waste.

7. References-

  1. Dr. Aaron, M. Flickstein, “The Use of Infrared Heat to Produce Cardiovascular Conditioning.” Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) , August , 1981
  2. Schoeller textile AG The Energear promotes blood circulation January 18, 2011 fibre 2 fashion
  3. Schoeller Offers energear™ Technology For More Energy, Increased Performance Capacity, Greater Wellbeing, textile world 13  July 2010
  4. Innovation in Textiles News Far Infrared fabric lowers pulse rate, improves performance
  5. Innovation in Textiles News Technical textile online , Far Infra Red technology can be printed onto fabrics by sevelen 13 July 2011
  6. Schoeller Switzerland,”The new energy recovery system for textiles”, Innovative fabrics and technologies for workwear.
  7. Tavex, “Denim therapy” The natural balance of fashion and science
  8.  http://www.physiotherm.net/saunas/43/infraredSaunaResearch.html
  9. http://www.schoeller-tech.com
  10. http://www. Far infrared improves health with far infrared therapy
  11. http://www.far infrared clothing & thermal technology healthcare & pain relief
  12. http://www.Far Infrared Fabric Manufacturer -- Super Textile Corporation is a leading supplier and exporter of Far Infrared Fabric in Taiwan, Asia
  13. http://www.far infrared medical organization health care information
  14. http://www.Far Infrared Rays therapy - health therapy by FIR  Japan-Biofir
  15. http://www.Far Infrared Research
  16. http://www.Far Infrared Sauna Technology Co. ltd
  17. http://www.Far-Infrared Light-Wave Technology